The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT), signed by India and Pakistan in 1960 has been seen both as the one agreement that has worked between India and Pakistan and as an anachronism which should be dissolved or renegotiated.

On December 20, 2013 the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a judgement which recalibrates and modernises the IWT, and again makes it a critical and effective instrument in avoiding conflicts between India and Pakistan on use of the rivers of the Indus Basin.

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